The basics of healthy eating
The problem of overweight and obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic. But strict diets are not a panacea.
According to the Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences in 2009, 50% of Russia's population is overweight, and 30% are obese. And this figure is growing steadily. Particularly disturbing is the increase in the number of obese children with endocrine disorders.
As a panacea “from hand to hand” many different diets are transmitted, built on the restriction or even exclusion of certain elements from the diet. But not everything is so simple: according to experts, the rejection of “harmful” carbohydrates or fats, for example, can lead to serious changes in metabolic processes in the body.
Mono-diets also upset the physiological balance in the body. Numerous studies have proved that a healthy diet should be balanced and complete in the ratio of carbohydrates-proteins-fats, contain a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals and be based on natural products without artificial additives.
And even those elements that are traditionally considered harmful to the figure, we simply need.
CAN I LIVE WITHOUT SWEET? The definitive answer is “no!”, Because the body needs carbohydrates. They serve as the main source of energy. Over 56% of the energy the body receives from carbohydrates, only the rest from proteins and fats.
Deficiency of carbohydrates in the body provokes metabolic disorders. The body begins to compensate for the lack of energy due to proteins and fats. Such a substitution leads to an increase in the load on the kidneys, a violation of salt metabolism. And if a person does not receive carbohydrates for a long time, then the body becomes “acidified”, as it begins to use fat as an energy supplier.
30% of Russians are obese, and the number of overweight people is growing.
Chronic carbohydrate deficiency also causes fat deposition in liver cells and depletion of glycogen stores. This leads to impaired liver function and its fatty degeneration.
The thing is what kind of carbohydrates you eat and in what quantity.
Types of carbohydrates Depending on the complexity of the structure, solubility, speed of absorption, carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex.
• Simple carbohydrates quickly and easily absorbed, instantly giving strength. But the feeling of satiety after a sweet bun goes away as quickly as it comes, and if the energy received is not spent on physical activity, excess carbohydrates are stored in the form of fat. Record holders for simple carbohydrates - sugar, sweets, confectionery, white bread, honey and sweet fruits.• Complex carbohydrates they break down more slowly, do not cause a sharp increase in blood glucose levels and guarantee a long-lasting feeling of satiety. These are vegetables, cereals, durum wheat pasta, grain bread and legumes.
How much do you need? Although carbohydrates are not among the essential substances and can be formed in the body, their minimum content in food should not be lower than 50-60 g per day. A further decrease in the amount of carbohydrates leads to sharp disturbances in metabolic processes.
But excess carbohydrate intake leads to obesity. It has been established that with excessive intake of sugar, the conversion of all food substances (starch, fat, and partially protein) into fat is enhanced.
By the way, according to the Institute of Nutrition RAMS, in our country, sugar consumption on average exceeded 120 g per day per capita. Excess sugar is converted to triglycerides, which contribute to increased formation of adipose tissue. The content of insulin in the blood rises, which is "thrown" into it for sugar processing: the more sugar is delivered, the more insulin is required. And this is a direct path to type II diabetes.
Therefore, the body's need for carbohydrates must be satisfied by complex, slowly absorbed. They should account for 80–90% of the total amount of carbohydrates consumed.
What is happening with the products? They lose valuable properties! Reducing the amount of valuable trace elements (data are given in 2002 in comparison with data in 1985) *
|* Data from the specialists of the pharmaceutical company “Geigy”, nutrition laboratory of Karlsruhe, Germany|
WILL IT BE OILY? It is possible and necessary to limit the amount of fat in our diet, but you can not refuse them! Along with carbohydrates and proteins, fats are one of the important components of the cells of any living organism. In addition to the fact that fats are the most valuable energy material, complete synthesis of sex hormones and assimilation of vital fat-soluble vitamins A, E, D and K are impossible without them. A lack of fats in the body threatens dry skin, early wrinkles, nervous exhaustion and infertility.
According to the Institute of Nutrition RAMS, in our country the consumption of sugar per capita exceeded 120 g per day - this is twice the norm!
Brain cells are more than 60% fat, and the lack of fat entering the body affects its performance in the worst possible way. The question is, what fats do we need and how much.
Types of fat Fats (lipids) are divided into neutral fats and fat-like substances (lecithin, cholesterol). By the way, experts have proved that cholesterol is a necessary substance for humans, it is part of the cell membranes, hormones (including sex) are synthesized from it. But an increase in its level inevitably leads to the formation of plaques in the walls of blood vessels.
Saturated fats (animals), polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats (vegetable) are distinguished depending on the structure and origin.
• Polyunsaturated fats found in large quantities in vegetable oils (except olive) and fish oils.• Monounsaturated Fat - This is olive and rapeseed oil. The ratio of fat in the diet should be approximately 1/3 in favor of vegetable (unsaturated).• Saturated Fat contained in butter and dairy products of high fat content, sausages and sausages (including boiled "Doctor", which for some reason is considered dietary), fatty meat, lard, etc.
How much do you need? The average daily requirement for fats is approximately 100 g. Excess fat in nutrition is a risk of damage to the liver, pancreas, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cholelithiasis.
ALL FORCE IS IN PROTEIN Expert Opinion David Heber, MD, professor, director of the Center for Human Nutrition at the University of California, chairman of the Herbalife Science Advisory Board.
Over the past few decades, the motor activity of residents of developed countries has decreased by 2.5 times, and the average serving size of food has grown by about the same. A decrease in physical activity leads to a decrease in the muscle mass of a person, which already decreases with age.
A well-developed muscular system of a person is one of the main components of his well-being. In addition, muscle mass is the most metabolically active tissue in the human body. His personal laboratory for burning fat and, consequently, for weight loss (muscle tissue burns 5 times more calories than fat).
The most valuable vegetable protein is soy protein.
The main component of muscle tissue is protein, which a person can receive only with food, or using the protein of his own body.
Protein is the main plastic material for the construction of all cells, tissues and organs of a person, the formation of enzymes, hormones and other compounds that regulate all body functions.
With a protein deficiency, the formation of enzymes and hormones is disrupted and, as a result, the cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, urogenital and other body systems are disrupted. In addition, antibodies are formed from the protein, which play a protective role and ensure the immunity of a person to infections. Proteins also neutralize toxic substances and toxins that enter our body, increase resistance to stress and can perform many other functions.
15% of protein (and more) is found in legumes: in soybeans, peas, beans, lentils.
Proteins are vital for the optimal functioning of the body. That is why the name "proteins" comes from the Greek word "protos", which means the main, the only. Proteins are a part of all body tissues and are updated throughout life on average at least 200 times.
A serious minus of many protein-rich foods, such as pork or lamb, is their fat content and, consequently, excess calorie content.
In order to solve the problem of excess calorie content and relative protein deficiency in nutrition, experts have developed functional foods in the form of protein shakes and bars. They have an optimal balanced composition in terms of protein and other macronutrients and at the same time are low-calorie. They are based on an isolate of soy protein, which is well absorbed, and its amino acid composition is comparable to the proteins of milk and meat, which is why it is called vegetable "meat". They can be used in addition to the main diet or, for example, instead of breakfast or dinner. Functional foods make it possible to obtain complete protein and make the overall diet more balanced in the composition of the necessary elements. Diluting a protein shake with milk, juice or yogurt or adding fruit to it is quick and easy.
As the research results showed, thanks to a low-calorie and at the same time protein-rich diet, people lose 2 times more adipose tissue compared to those who simply limit calorie intake, and they are 50% less prone to re-gain weight!
PROTEIN CONTENT IN PRODUCTS More than 15 g of protein per 100 g of product contain foods that are richest in protein. These include low-fat cottage cheese, cheeses, meat, poultry, fish, nuts (hazelnuts, walnuts, peanuts), legumes (soy, peas, beans, lentils).
10-15 g protein per 100 g of product contain fat cottage cheese, pork, boiled sausages, sausages, eggs, bread, cereals, millet, pasta.
Less than 2 g protein found in vegetable oils, fruits, berries, vegetables, mushrooms.
When planning a diet It is important to remember that plant and animal proteins should be ingested in equal amounts, and a daily amount of protein is recommended at a rate of 0.8–2.5 g per 1 kg of your body weight, which provides 10–35% of the body’s energy needs.
PHOTO: PRO. CORBIS / FOTOSA.RU, PHOTOXPRESS