Alexander GAVRILOV, spokesman for the Moscow Department of Education, answers questions from the Department of Education.
• Will school education be paid as a result of all reforms?
There is a curriculum that complies with state standards. In it, all items are required and free. Also, the inappropriate activities of the student (mugs, electives, studios) remain free.
• What is an educational standard? What is its difference from the usual school curriculum?
This is the amount of knowledge that the state guarantees for each student. Since September 1, 2011, all Russian schools have switched to the state educational standard of primary schools. This is not an experiment - our law “On Education” stipulates that a new federal state educational standard should be introduced every few years.
Compared to the school curriculum, the standard did not decrease the amount of knowledge; the requirements for the quality of knowledge and skills of the student changed. The new standard gives the child more than the previous learning system. Today, the student is required not mechanical memorization, but the ability to use information, think logically, draw conclusions.
When current first graders graduate from 4th grade, the educational standard of high school will be introduced in schools.
• It is still not very clear what the educational standard for high school will be. This project was criticized a lot in the media. At what stage is work on this document?
Now in development. It was criticized correctly - it was incorrectly worded. It was written so poorly that even experts understood little about it. There is no need to be afraid of this standard, it needs to be discussed - only truth is born in the discussion.
• Will parents have to pay for classes that were free after the education reform?
Most electives and circles remain free. In addition to what the state guarantees, the school may introduce additional extracurricular activities. If the school administration and their parents suddenly want the children to study fencing or rhetoric (these are additional educational services that are not included in the list of free circles and electives), then they will be held as optional items that really have to be paid out of the pocket of the parents.
• It is planned to introduce a subject on the basics of religion, in what form will it be taught?
It is called "Fundamentals of Religious Culture and Secular Ethics." As an experiment, it is being introduced into the fourth-graders' schedule in the last quarter of this school year in some educational institutions. In Moscow, he will appear in the school schedule of the Zelenograd district. This is a cultural subject, it will be useful for expanding the horizons of the child. In the next academic year, this discipline will be introduced everywhere.
The division into threes, good and excellent students is long outdated
Sergey KAZARNOVSKY, Honored Teacher of Russia, Director of the Class-Center School:
“Now a very dramatic situation has ripened in the education system. This year introduced standards for elementary school. They stuffed computers with classes, retrained teachers ... For the first time in the history of mankind, students can do more than their teachers. Small children with “macs” are sitting in the classroom, in the lesson they can, for example, read a poem, write a sound file and send it to their parents.
But how to evaluate these new skills? The old system is not suitable for this. Dividing a class of 25 completely different personalities into threesomes, good guys and excellent students is inefficient, and humiliating for a small person.
We need time to comprehend all the innovations, and officials from education already require some reports from us. The new financing system, when a child brings budget money with him to school, seems to be good. She pushes the director to open up more and more classes. Then he can pay teachers more. But a huge number of students do not speak at all about the quality of education. At the same time, primary education is cheaper than secondary, this is nonsense. ”
Society has not decided what to teach a high school student.
Evgeny BUNIMOVICH, teacher, Honored Teacher of Russia, Commissioner for the Rights of the Child:
“The problem of school education standards turned out to be overwhelming for Russia. Everything is clear with elementary school - we cannot but take into account that the whole world lives on the Internet and uses computer technologies. Another thing, this creates a lot of problems for teachers who did not work like that. The new standard requires other teaching methods. The teacher is no longer the main source of information for children. There are many, just go online.
The function of a teacher in the new conditions is to teach how to navigate it. The child must not only be able to reproduce, for example, the multiplication table, he needs to be proactive, be able to obtain information, interpret it and draw conclusions. High school standards were not, and rightly, accepted, because we do not know how and what to teach high school students? Everyone wants everything - fundamental knowledge and narrow specialization, with an eye to the future profession. But as they said in the film "Funny Guys": "Citizens, the hearse is not rubber." The mechanical addition of new subjects only overloads the student. Variability of subjects is needed, but which ones should be mandatory, to what extent should they be taught? Our society has not yet decided on this issue. ”
Teachers can no longer teach children.
Zhanna SHOPINA, psychologist, assistant professor of design psychology at the Institute of Psychology named after L.S. Vygotsky, RSUH:
“New standards are perfect. For the first time in many years, the education system is trying to focus on the true development of the child. The emphasis on the personal level also implies certain pedagogical actions of teachers who have forgotten how to teach children.
Today, the standard position of the teacher: if the child copes with the program - excellent. But, if he does not have time, the teacher does not have a tool to teach the child. Is there a problem with the Russian language? The teacher directs the student to a speech therapist. The child behaves badly - to a psychologist who will find out, for example, that this student is very active and alive, he is just bored of doing tedious things in the lesson.
Next is a call with the parents to the director. Teachers have ceased to understand that they are dealing with a person. Directors and teachers are afraid of the checks that education officials come to school to test students. By its results, the school may be included in the list of good ones - and then it will receive money for development. Or maybe - to the category of bad ones, then it will be closed, and the directors will be fired. We are faced with a trap: attention is diverted to discussion of standards, this leads us away from real problems in the education system. ”